⇒ Jim says ‘I am cleaning my room.‘
⇒ Jim says that he is cleaning his room.
⇒ Tom says ‘ I am thirsty.’
⇒ Tom says that he is thirsty.
∆∆∆ Eğer cümlenin ana fiili Past Tense ise isim cümleciğinin fiili de past tense olur.
⇒ Elvis said ‘I do my homework.’
⇒ Elvis said that he did his homework.
⇒ Elvis said ‘I am doing my homework.’
⇒ Elvis said that he was doing his homework.
⇒ Elvis told me ‘I have done my homework.’
⇒ Elvis told me that he had done his homework.
⇒ Elvis said ‘I did my homework.’
⇒ Elvis said he had done his homework.
⇒ Elvis told her ‘I am going to do my homework.’
⇒ Elvis told her that he was going to do his homework.
⇒ Elvis told ‘I will do my homework.’
⇒ Elvis told that he would do his homework.
⇒ Elvis told us ‘I can do my homework.’
⇒ Elvis told us that he could do his homework.
⇒ Elvis said ‘I may do my hoework.’
⇒ Elvis said that he might do his homework.
∆∆∆ Dolaysız anlatımda bazen kişiyi değiştirebiliriz.
DIRECT SPEECH – INDIRECT SPEECH:
I/You → he/she
we/you → they
us/you → him/her
mine/yours → his/hers
ours/yours → theirs
myself/yourself → himself/herself
ourselves/yorselves → themselves
our/your → their
my/your → his/her
⇒ The teacher said to Marry ‘I will read your composition.’
⇒ The teacher said to Mary that he would read her composition.
∆∆∆ Dolaysız anlatımda bir PAST’a ihtiyacımız vardır.
DIRECT SPEECH – INDIRECT SPEECH
Simple present → Simple past
Present Continous → Past continous
Present Perfect → Past perfect
Present Per. Continous → Past Per. Continous
Simple past → past perfect
Future → Conditional
Future Continous → Conditional Continous
USING SAY / TELL (Say ve tell’in kullanımı)
“Say”i bir işim cümleciği takip eder fakat tell’i etmez.
“Tell”i bir zamir yada nesne takip eder ve bundan isim cümleciği gelir.
⇒ Roger said that he was hungry.
⇒ Cathrine said that she would visit her aunt.
⇒ Carol told me that she walked to school.
⇒ Ruth told Sue that she had to type all the letters.
∆∆∆ Dolaysız anlatımda bazen zaman zarflarında değişiklik yaparız.
DIRECT SPEECH – INDIRECT SPEECH
ago → before
a month ago → the previous month/a month before
last year → the previous year/the year before
last week → the previous week/the week before
yesterday → the previous day/the day before
yesterday afternoon → the previous afternoon
next year → the following year
next week → the following week
now → then/at that time/at once
the day after tomorrow → in two days time/two days after
the day before yesterday → two days before/the days earlier
this year → that year
this week → that week
today → that day/someday
tomorrow → the next day
tomorrow morning → the next morning/the following morning
COMMON REPORTING VERBS (Yaygın Bildirme Fiilleri)
STATEMENTS INSTRUCTIONS AND COMMAND QUESTIONS
(DURUMLAR) (TALİMAT VE EMİRLER) (SORULAR)
REQUESTS AND INVITATIONS
(RİCALAR VE DAVETLER)
acknowledge say advise ask
explain add command inquire
admit mean instruct question
answer tell invite want to know
suggest report order wonder
promise claim say
complain warn tell
conclude believe warn
∆∆∆ Dolaysız anlatımda ‘this ve these’de bazı değişiklikler de olur. Eğer ‘this ve these’ zamir olarak kullanılırsa ‘it ve they’ or ‘them’ olur.
⇒ ‘This is my car.’ Joe said. Joe said it was his car.
⇒ ‘These are cars.’ Mary said. Mary said that they were cars.
‘I will use these.’ Mr. Parker said. Mr. Parker said that he would use them.
∆∆∆ Eğer ‘this’ bir zaman ifadesi olarak kullanılırsa ‘that’ olur.
⇒ ‘I will visit my friends this summer.’ Judy said.
⇒ Judy said that she would visit her friends that summer.
∆∆∆ Eğer ‘this ve these’ sıfat olarak kullanılırsa ‘the’ olur.
⇒ ‘My mother read this book.’ Danny said.
⇒ Danny said that his mother had read the book.
⇒ ‘I like these flowers.’ Helen said.
⇒ Helen said she liked the flowers.
∆∆∆ Eğer cümlede birden fazla fiil varsa hepsi past tense olur.
⇒ ‘Judy studies although it is very late’ she said.
⇒ She said that Judy studied although it was very late.
⇒ She said ‘I don’t know where he goes.’
⇒ She said that she didn’t know where he went.
⇒ ‘If my aunt comes, you may welcome her.’Bill said.
⇒ Bill said that if his aunt came, I might welcome her.
⇒ ‘I am sure we will win this match.’ Jack said.
⇒ Jack said that he was sure they would win the match.
INDIRECT OF MODALS
can → could: (Tom said) I can’t come to the party.
Tom said that he couldn’t come to the party.
may → might: (Ahmet said) You may not lose.
Ahmet said that he might not lose.
must/have to→ has to: (George said) ‘I must tell the truth.’
⇒ George said he had to tell the truth.
⇒ (Bill said) I may write a letter to Lucy.
⇒ Bill said he might write a letter to Lucy.
shall → should: (He said) ’I shall go and see a doctor.’
⇒ He said that he should go and see a doctor.
⇒ Jennifer told me ‘We shall dance.’
⇒ Jennifer told me that we should dance.
⇒ My parents said ‘We will give you a punishment.’
⇒ My parents said they would give me a punishment.