57. Direct-Indirect Speech – Dolaylı Anlatım

⇒ Jim says ‘I am cleaning my room.‘

⇒ Jim says that he is cleaning his room.

 

⇒ Tom says ‘ I am thirsty.’

⇒ Tom says that he is thirsty.

∆∆∆ Eğer cümlenin ana fiili Past Tense ise isim cümleciğinin fiili de past tense olur.

ÖRNEK:

⇒ Elvis said ‘I do my homework.’

⇒ Elvis said that he did his homework.

 

⇒ Elvis said ‘I am doing my homework.’

⇒ Elvis said that he was doing his homework.

 

⇒ Elvis told me ‘I have done my homework.’

⇒ Elvis told me that he had done his homework.

 

⇒ Elvis said ‘I did my homework.’

⇒ Elvis said he had done his homework.

 

⇒ Elvis told her ‘I am going to do my homework.’

⇒ Elvis told her that he was going to do his homework.

 

⇒ Elvis told ‘I will do my homework.’

⇒ Elvis told that he would do his homework.

 

⇒ Elvis told us ‘I can do my homework.’

⇒ Elvis told us that he could do his homework.

 

⇒ Elvis said ‘I may do my hoework.’

⇒ Elvis said that he might do his homework.

 

∆∆∆ Dolaysız anlatımda bazen kişiyi değiştirebiliriz.

DIRECT SPEECH                          –                      INDIRECT SPEECH:

I/You                                                                      he/she

we/you                                    →                               they

us/you                                                                    him/her

mine/yours                                                            his/hers

ours/yours                              →                               theirs

myself/yourself                      →                               himself/herself

ourselves/yorselves               →                               themselves

our/your                                 →                               their

my/your                                  →                               his/her

 

⇒ The teacher said to Marry ‘I will read your composition.’

⇒ The teacher said to Mary that he would read her composition.

∆∆∆ Dolaysız anlatımda bir PAST’a ihtiyacımız vardır.

DIRECT SPEECH                          –                     INDIRECT SPEECH

Simple present                                                      Simple past

Present Continous                                                Past continous

Present Perfect                                                      Past perfect

Present Per. Continous                                         Past Per. Continous

Simple past                                                            past perfect

Future                                                                    Conditional

Future Continous                                                  Conditional Continous

 

USING SAY / TELL (Say ve tell’in kullanımı)

“Say”i bir işim cümleciği takip eder fakat tell’i etmez.

“Tell”i bir zamir yada nesne takip eder ve bundan isim cümleciği gelir.

⇒ Roger said that he was hungry.

⇒ Cathrine said that she would visit her aunt.

⇒ Carol told me that she walked to school.

⇒ Ruth told Sue that she had to type all the letters.

∆∆∆ Dolaysız anlatımda bazen zaman zarflarında değişiklik yaparız.

 

DIRECT SPEECH                          –                     INDIRECT SPEECH

ago                                                                         before

a month ago                                                          the previous month/a month before

last year                                                                 the previous year/the year before

last week                                                               the previous week/the week before

yesterday                                                               the previous day/the day before

yesterday afternoon                                             the previous afternoon

next year                                                               the following year

next week                                                              the following week

now                                                                        then/at that time/at once

the day after tomorrow                                        in two days time/two days after

the day before yesterday                                     two days before/the days earlier

this year                                                                 that year

this week                                                               that week

today                                                                     that day/someday

tomorrow                                                              the next day

tomorrow morning                                               the next morning/the following morning

 

 

COMMON  REPORTING VERBS (Yaygın Bildirme Fiilleri)

STATEMENTS                                      INSTRUCTIONS AND COMMAND     QUESTIONS

(DURUMLAR)                                         (TALİMAT VE EMİRLER)                    (SORULAR)

REQUESTS AND INVITATIONS

(RİCALAR VE DAVETLER)

acknowledge              say                                 advise                                                      ask

explain                        add                              command                                              inquire

admit                          mean                            instruct                                                 question

answer                       tell                                 invite                                                      want to know

suggest                       report                           order                                                      wonder

promise                      claim                            say

complain                    warn                             tell

conclude                    believe                         warn

 

∆∆∆ Dolaysız anlatımda ‘this ve these’de bazı değişiklikler de olur. Eğer ‘this ve these’ zamir olarak kullanılırsa ‘it ve they’ or ‘them’ olur.

⇒ ‘This is my car.’ Joe said. Joe said it was his car.

⇒ ‘These are cars.’ Mary said. Mary said that they were cars.

‘I will use these.’ Mr. Parker said. Mr. Parker said that he would use them.

 

∆∆∆ Eğer ‘this’ bir zaman ifadesi olarak kullanılırsa ‘that’ olur.

⇒ ‘I will visit my friends this summer.’ Judy said.

⇒ Judy said that she would visit her friends that summer.

 

∆∆∆ Eğer ‘this ve these’ sıfat olarak kullanılırsa ‘the’ olur.

⇒ ‘My mother read this book.’ Danny said.

⇒ Danny said that his mother had read the book.

 

⇒ ‘I like these flowers.’ Helen said.

⇒ Helen said she liked the flowers.

∆∆∆ Eğer cümlede birden fazla fiil varsa hepsi past tense olur.

⇒ ‘Judy studies although it is very late’ she said.

⇒ She said that Judy studied although it was very late.

 

⇒ She said ‘I don’t know where he goes.’

⇒ She said that she didn’t know where he went.

 

⇒ ‘If my aunt comes, you may welcome her.’Bill said.

⇒ Bill said that if his aunt came, I might welcome her.

 

⇒ ‘I am sure we will win this match.’ Jack said.

⇒ Jack said that he was sure they would win the match.

 

INDIRECT OF MODALS

can → could: (Tom said) I can’t come to the party.

Tom said that he couldn’t come to the party.

 

may → might: (Ahmet said) You may not lose.

Ahmet said that he might not lose.

 

must/have to→ has to: (George said) ‘I must tell the truth.’

⇒ George said he had to tell the truth.

⇒ (Bill said) I may write a letter to Lucy.

⇒ Bill said he might write a letter to Lucy.

 

shall → should: (He said) ’I shall go and see a doctor.’

⇒ He said that he should go and see a doctor.

 

⇒ Jennifer told me ‘We shall dance.’

⇒ Jennifer told me that we should dance.

 

⇒ My parents said ‘We will give you a punishment.’

⇒ My parents said they would give me a punishment.

 

 

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